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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)

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This database allows access to opinions and conclusions from 115 SCOGS reports* published between 1972-1980 on the safety of over 370 Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food substances. The GRAS ingredient reviews were conducted by the Select Committee in response to a 1969 White House directive by President Richard M. Nixon (see History of GRAS and SCOGS).

The SCOGS database allows users to search for the SCOGS opinion and conclusion, and includes the United States Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) citation for those GRAS food substances that have been codified in the CFR. Many of the SCOGS reports reviewed have more than one GRAS substance and each substance was evaluated and assigned its own individual type of conclusion on safety; Type 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, as shown in the table below.**

The SCOGS Conclusions were made by scientific experts outside of FDA. The complete background of the Select Committee is described in the History of GRAS and SCOGS.

Search and display hints:

  • Select the GRAS substance below to view the record details, including the SCOGS opinion.
  • Select the CFR reference below to view the 21 CFR regulations.
  • Select the NTIS Accession Number below to retrieve the full report from NTIS.
  • To sort by a specific field, click on the column header for that field.
  • To browse the records, use the Show All, First/Previous/Next/Last, and Jump To options at the bottom of the data table.
  • To search for a specific substance/term, enter the term in the Search box and select Show Items to display only those records that contain the selected term.
Download SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) data in Microsoft Excel web format Download data from this searchable database in Excel format. If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players.
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Definitions of labels

  • GRAS Substances: A food substance that is not subject to premarket review and approval by FDA because it is generally recognized, by qualified experts, to be safe under the intended conditions of use.
  • SCOGS Report Number: Number of the report that contains details of the safety studies that formed the basis of the opinion made by the committee.
  • CAS Reg. No. or other ID Code: Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) Registry Number for the substance or a numerical code assigned by CFSAN to those substances that do not have a CAS Registry Number (977nnn-nn-n series).
  • Year of Report: The year that the SCOGS report was issued.
  • SCOGS Type of Conclusion: Opinion and Conclusion by the Select Committee on GRAS Substance Review about the safety of a GRAS substance. See SCOGS Conclusions.
  • 21 CFR Regulation: Citation in Title 21 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations if the substance is subject to a regulation.
  • *NTIS Accession Number: Order number of the full report containing details of the safety studies that formed the basis of the opinions and conclusions that is available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS); search the accession number in the NTRL (National Technical Reports Library).

**SCOGS Type of Conclusion Definition
1There is no evidence in the available information on [substance] that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or might reasonably be expected in the future.
2 There is no evidence in the available information on [substance] that demonstrates a hazard to the public when it is used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced. However, it is not possible to determine, without additional data, whether a significant increase in consumption would constitute a dietary hazard.
3 While no evidence in the available information on [substance] demonstrates a hazard to the public when it is used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced, uncertainties exist requiring that additional studies be conducted.
4The evidence on [substance] is insufficient to determine that the adverse effects reported are not deleterious to the public health should it be used at former levels and in the manner formerly practiced.
5In view of the almost complete lack of biological studies, the Select Committee has insufficient data upon which to evaluate the safety of [substance] as a [intended use].
GRAS Substance SCOGS
CAS Reg. No.
or other
ID Code
Year of
Type of
21 CFR